Smoking and pressure
Smoking and pressure is a very common problem. The nature of the formation and development of blood pressure disorders during smoking makes it possible to consider hypertension or hypotension as secondary, that is, associated with some pathogenetic factor, in this case, exposure to nicotine and tobacco smoke components.
The multifactorial effect of smoking on blood pressure has both an immediate and a delayed effect. The rapid rise in blood pressure after smoking is associated with the direct effect of nicotine on blood vessels and their regulation: exerting an n-cholinomimetic effect (that is, irritating the corresponding receptors), nicotine causes reflex vasoconstriction, and after spasm, blood pressure rises.
The second aspect of the effect of nicotine on blood pressure is the stimulation of the release of adrenaline through the sympathetic nervous system.
The delayed effect in the form of chronic arterial hypertension is associated with a violation of vascular regulation due to the formation of a pathological chain “nicotine – blood vessels – pressure” with a corresponding vascular response. The cause of hypertension in smokers also lies in the respiratory and circulatory disorders that are inevitable with tobacco smoking.
In this case, there is a chronic activation of chemoreceptors, and through them the excitation of the sympathetic nervous system with subsequent reactions of the nervous, vascular, endocrine systems.
Does smoking raise or lower blood pressure?
Does smoking and pressure definitely mean an increase in blood pressure? Not always. If we could consider some ideally and uniquely functioning human body, where all processes proceed in accordance with the schemes and rules, then hypertension would be inevitable.
However, in addition to stimulating the production of neurotransmitters, nicotine creates conditions under which the smoker’s body is in chronic hypoxia. With it, chemoreceptors (special mechanoreceptors , which, among other things, are responsible for vascular tone and respiration), in response to nicotine, give out the so-called Bezold-Jarish reflex , which is characterized by a decrease in heart rate and systemic hypotension.
Cigarette smoking and blood pressure can be linked in unthinkable ways. For example, the well-known fact of chronic hypovitaminosis in smokers and pressure – what do they have in common? However, it is known that a constant deficiency of vitamins C, groups B and E are provoking factors for hypotension.
For the development of hypertension, the presence of pathological processes in the so-called target organs: kidneys, heart, blood vessels is important. And if many people more or less guess about the importance of the kidneys (more precisely, their pressor function) and the heart in the formation of hypertension, then few smokers know that with obliterating endarteritis – a typical “nicotinic” disease – blood clots often form (the so-called Virchow triad) , and thrombi, in turn, cause atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels.
Further, the pathological chain continues: vascular atherosclerosis (especially the arteries of the thigh, iliac and arteries of the lower extremities) is a high risk factor for the formation of arterial hypertension.
Smoking raises blood pressure
An increase in blood pressure and tachycardia is a typical and most common reaction in response to nicotine ingestion. Nicotine easily passes through all barriers, almost all tissues of the body are sensitive to it, and therefore a reaction (local and / or general) from organs and systems is inevitable. The vessels constrict, adrenaline is released, the activity of the GHB system increases, the work of the heart increases – blood pressure rises.
What does the person feel about it? If an experienced smoker – then almost nothing. The compensatory systems of the body have long been turned on, which help to reduce the severity of the effects of nicotine. Over time, compensatory capabilities will decrease, the resources of biologically active systems will gradually run out, and hypertension will unfold with all its might.
A novice smoker with vascular sensations gets acquainted with the very first puff: spinning, and then a headache, nausea (or vomiting begins), heart pounding, arms and legs trembling, ringing in the ears, a short faint may even happen.
What to do?
Quitting smoking is understandable. But as always, “but” – it doesn’t work, I don’t want to, I like to smoke. Maybe try to combine smoking and pressure, help the body and take measures to make it at least a little easier to work with?
Perhaps, with the help of preventive measures, it will be possible to reduce the risk (more precisely, to delay the onset) of chronic arterial hypertension (hypertension), but this will not be correct from the point of view of the pathogenesis of the disease. Such measures include:
- adherence to a diet with a restriction of fatty, spicy, foods high in carbohydrates;
- reducing the amount of salt consumed, including hidden. According to estimates, the recommended daily amount of salt ranges from 5 to 15 grams, and depends on age, place of residence, physical activity, the presence of chronic diseases;
- physical activity is mandatory – according to tolerance, for health reasons. Lack or insufficiency of load, a sedentary lifestyle lead to a variety of disruptions in the functioning of the whole organism, and in particular the kidneys, vascular and neurotransmitter systems;
- measures must be taken to combat factors of chronic distress;
- normalize the regime of the day, work and rest;
- maintain normal body weight.
Smoking lowers blood pressure
Nicotine can also lower blood pressure – there are also many predisposing factors to this. Many of them are associated not only with the influence of nicotine, but also with the conditions that it causes when it enters the body. For example, the arrhythmogenic effect of nicotine is associated with hypotension and vascular response in response to a drop in blood pressure.
The increase in the release of norepinephrine under the influence of nicotine is also important: norepinephrine affects α2 receptors, the stimulation of which leads to a decrease in pressure.
Hypotensives are characterized by daytime sleepiness, lengthening of night sleep, a tendency to faint or a pre-fainting state, and meteosensitivity. They are weak and broken in the morning (in hypotensive smokers, morning bouts of coughing lead to severe dizziness, “greenness” in the eyes, palpitations and sweat).
Pale skin, constantly cold nose, ears, feet and hands, memory impairment, decreased motor and mental activity, exercise intolerance, motion sickness when traveling, easy onset of nausea – for example, just at the thought of impending trouble.
When puffed, smokers suffering from arterial hypotension may experience severe dizziness, a feeling of slowing down everything that happens, a desire to sit or lie down, a headache in the forehead, above the eyes. The inhaled air seems cold, the sounds are muffled, sensitivity to smell, color, taste disappears or sharply decreases.
What to do?
There are no special measures to help a hypotensive smoker. It is recommended to establish a diet (exclude fatty and overly sweet foods) and physical activity, get enough sleep, take vitamin and mineral complexes on the advice of a doctor.
It is better to smoke in the fresh air, away from other smokers, it is advisable to sit while smoking, and if the blood pressure drops too sharply, immediately sit down and put your head on your knees.
A cigarette and coffee at the same time helps many people – only it acts too “lethally” on the vessels.
pressure after smoking
Almost everyone has a change in pressure after smoking. Another thing is that a person eventually gets used to the sensations that accompany this state, and does not experience discomfort.
But imperceptibly, the destructive effect of nicotine is becoming more and more obvious, the violations are aggravated, simple preventive measures and alternative medicine do not help, one has to resort to drugs.
What to do?
So if cigarettes raise or lower blood pressure, you have to put up with it? No, it turns out, there is no point in quitting smoking, its effect is irreversible?
Do not add optimism and feelings of those who quit smoking. Without the usual dose of nicotine, the body “rebels”, gives out completely paradoxical reactions. Instead of the cough subsiding, it intensifies, instead of normalizing the pressure, it starts to jump or rises even more, and then the weight creeps up, which leads to aggravation of leapfrog with blood pressure. It is clear that it is not far from here to the appearance of skeptical thoughts: here you have smoking and pressure.
Do not throw? Smoking and being treated? Or quit and … get treated again?
It is better to quit – at least those who have not yet acquired chronic hypertension have a chance to significantly reduce its risk. For those who quit smoking, for about 6-18 months, there is an active restoration of the work of the cardiovascular system.
Within 2 – 5 (and sometimes more years) the condition returns or significantly approaches the age and other norms. The sooner a person quits, the less smoking “experience” he has, the faster and more fully these processes will pass, the lower the risk of developing hypo- or hypertension.
There is no doubt that many factors play a role in the development of hypertension, including categorically not related to smoking: genetic predisposition and eating habits; climate and working conditions; body weight and mental stress.
However, the fewer risk factors, the lower the load on the target organs of hypertension, the weaker their provoking effect. Smoking and pressure go hand in hand. Either a sense of self-preservation must spring up, or … one has only to hope for a favorable outcome.