Effects of smoking on a child
As a result of smoking, reproductive ability decreases. Smoking during pregnancy is fraught with harmful consequences for the fetus. It increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, fetal and newborn death, sudden infant death syndrome. If smoking joins other risk factors, then the risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome increases dramatically.
The long-term effects of smoking during pregnancy are delayed physical development and mental retardation of the child. In women who smoke, children at birth weigh an average of 170 g less than in non-smokers. This is probably the result of reduced blood circulation in the placenta and uterus.
Chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.
Chromosomal abnormalities are present in at least 10% of fertilized eggs and in 5-6% of fetuses. Usually, chromosomal abnormalities cause spontaneous abortion at 8-11 weeks of gestation, and can also be the cause of late spontaneous abortions and stillbirths.
Trisomy ( 47 chromosomes ) is the most common chromosomal disorder causing early spontaneous abortion, followed by monosomy ( 45 chromosomes ) and triploidy ( 69 chromosomes ).
The loss of the Y or second X chromosome significantly impairs the development of the organism. If this does not lead to spontaneous abortion, then newborns ( always girls ) show symptoms of Turner’s syndrome.
Sometimes chromosomal aberrations are detected in apparently healthy people – with infertility, habitual abortions, or when they have children with congenital defects.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is sudden death between birth and 6 months of age.
There are several reasons for the change in respiratory function:
- in a dream, the tone of the muscles that expand the upper respiratory tract decreases, therefore, the patency worsens and the resistance of the latter increases;
- the sensitivity of the respiratory system to PCO2 and PO2 decreases;
- there is no stimulating effect that the state of wakefulness has on the respiratory center;
- metabolism slows down.
In addition, the cough reflex is suppressed during sleep.
All these factors play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome.